Everything You Need to Know About Peer Review
Any kind of academic work requires quality scientific data. Yet, distinguishing between fake and original information can be tricky. A lot of the sources contain bias and distorted facts as people are free to publish anything they want, especially on the web. Luckily, peer review exists to help you find sources written and validated by experts in a field. If you are not sure what peer review is and what makes it an indicator of quality in the scientific community, continue reading this article to figure it out.
What Does Peer Review Mean?
Peer review is the process of independent evaluation of academic work for quality and validity. It verifies whether a piece is suitable for publication, checking the adherence to academic standards. The assessment is performed by a board of experts in a relevant subject area. Aside from the quality check, peer review also serves as a form of feedback for authors as it helps them to revise and improve their work before publication.
Peer Review Process
When an author submits an article to a journal, it must go through several stages of the peer review process to be officially approved for publication. At the first stage, the editor of the journal checks whether the article observes journal policies and guidelines. If the piece meets primary requirements, the editor sends it to reviewers who are experts in the field the article belongs to. They check the content and quality of the presented information. The reviewers can accept the article, recommend revision, or reject it. If a revision is required, the author needs to make the necessary changes and submit the article for peer review again.
Peer Review Types
There are several types of peer reviews: single-blind, double-blind, triple-blind, and open.
- Single-blind reviews are preferred by most journals. Their main feature is that the reviewer’s names remain unknown to the author of the article. It benefits the transparency of review as the reviewers cannot be influenced by the author in any way, which allows them to stay objective. Yet, single-blind reviews have been criticized as reviewers may delay accepting the article to publish their own research first. Moreover, they can be too harsh in their comments, considering their anonymity.
- Double-blind reviews protect the identity of the author as well, allowing both parties to remain anonymous. It prevents bias against the author. It means that the result of peer review will not be influenced by the author’s personal or professional background. Yet, the editor can still see the author’s name, which leaves some concerns.
- Triple-blind reviews keep the author’s name hidden from both the reviewers and the editor. Yet, this type is not perfect as it requires much more time and money to review articles. Besides, there is still a possibility that the reviewers or the editor will identify the author by their writing voice.
- Open reviews support transparency during the peer review process. They make the author’s, the reviewers’, and the editor’s identities uncovered. Such reviews encourage open discussion, prevent reviewers from being too harsh, and speed up the peer review process.
The requirements and types of peer review may vary, depending on the journal that you submit your work to. However, its aim remains the same: to ensure a high standard of quality and scientific validity. This is the reason why your professors set the use of peer-reviewed sources as one of the main criteria for most academic papers.
How to Find Peer-Reviewed Sources?
To find out whether a certain article is peer-reviewed, check the editorial policy and article requirements of the journal where it is published. You will understand whether the source engages reviewers, preparing their articles for publication. If you are conducting your research online, use the “peer-reviewed” limiter on the search pages of databases and research platforms to narrow down the results.
Why Is Peer Review Important?
Peer review is a crucial part of the publication process. It brings some control into academic communication, preventing the spread of fake news and bias. Peer review also supports researchers and students as it allows them to access information that can be trusted. That is why any respected essay writing service accepts only the use of peer-reviewed articles as they provide original and valid evidence for academic papers. The scientific community relies on peer reviews because they facilitate research.
Authors also benefit from peer reviews as they can get feedback. It helps them to look at their work from a fresh perspective and fix the errors or gaps before publication. Besides, reviewers help to select the most relevant and significant work and expedite the publication process.
However, peer review does not lack critique. Usually, the process takes a lot of time, which slows down the publication of important discoveries. Besides, it does not fully prevent the publication of flawed works. Still, even though peer review might not be perfect, most scholars and researchers agree that its benefits outweigh the disadvantages.
The Final Thought
Peer review has been a helpful form of academic assessment. It emerged with the first scholarly journals about 300 years ago. Despite some criticism, peer review continues to be a widely recognized approach that allows finding valid and original works. Today, it facilitates the publication process, monitoring and improving the quality of the published materials.